Electrostatic charges are typically caused by friction between two materials Static charging can disturb the continuity many processes. E.g. Static charging can hinder the opening of the tubular film during packaging processes. Often the static charging is the limiting factor for higher speed in these processes. In addition, a reduced static charging avoids dust pick up by the packed goods. As a result, the materials can be stored and eventually displayed in a more attractive way.
Internal antistatic additives are incorporated in the polymer matrix. The controlled incompatibility causes migration to the surface. There it forms a polar layer that absorbs water from the atmosphere. This layer is able to conduct / dissipates the charges (higher conductivity/ lower resistance and shorter charge decay time).
Important here is a balanced incompatibility to control the migration: a too high incompatibility gives a low anti-static performance, a too high incompatibility causes a greasy surface.
An alternative is the addition of conductive fillers as carbon black. These creates a conductive path in the matrix. Here no migrating additives are used. The anti-static properties are stable in time.